SpiderTech News & Blogs

KINESIOLOGY TAPE FOR RECOVERY / PERFORMANCE / PREVENTION

  • Towards a theory of chronic pain

    Apkarian AV, Baliki MN, Geha PY. Towards a theory of chronic pain. Prog Neurobiol. 2009 Feb;87(2):81-97.

    In this review, we integrate recent human and animal studies from the viewpoint of chronic pain. First, we briefly review the impact of chronic pain on society and address current pitfalls of its definition and clinical management. Second, we examine pain mechanisms via nociceptive information transmission cephalad and its impact and interaction with the cortex. Third, we present recent discoveries on the active role of the cortex in chronic pain, with findings indicating that the human cortex continuously reorganizes as it lives in chronic pain. We also introduce data emphasizing that distinct chronic pain conditions impact on the cortex in unique patterns. Fourth, animal studies regarding nociceptive transmission, recent evidence for supraspinal reorganization during pain, the necessity of descending modulation for maintenance of neuropathic behavior, and the impact of cortical manipulations on neuropathic pain is also reviewed. We further expound on the notion that chronic pain can be reformulated within the context of learning and memory, and demonstrate the relevance of the idea in the design of novel pharmacotherapies. Lastly, we integrate the human and animal data into a unified working model outlining the mechanism by which acute pain transitions into a chronic state. It incorporates knowledge of underlying brain structures and their reorganization, and also includes specific variations as a function of pain persistence and injury type, thereby providing mechanistic descriptions of several unique chronic pain conditions within a single model.

  • Clinical efficacy of kinesiology taping in reducing edema of the lower limbs in patients treated with the ilizarov method–preliminary report

    Białoszewski D, Woźniak W, Zarek S. Clinical efficacy of kinesiology taping in reducing edema of the lower limbs in patients treated with the ilizarov method–preliminary report. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil. 2009 Jan-Feb;11(1):46-54.

    INTRODUCTION: Postoperative edema of predominantly lymphatic origin is a significant hindrance to physiotherapy in patients subjected to limb lengthening by the Ilizarov method. New treatment methods are being sought, and Kinesiology Taping is one of them. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 24 patients of both sexes subjected to lower limb lengthening using the Ilizarov method who had developed edema of the thigh or crus of the lengthened extremity. The mean age of the patients was 21 years. The patients were randomized into two groups of twelve, which were then subjected to 10 days of standard physiotherapy. The study group was additionally treated with Kinesiology Taping (lymphatic application), while the control group received standard lymphatic drainage. Treatment results were assessed by comparing the linear circumferences of the lower limbs before and after the treatment. RESULTS: The application of Kinesiology Taping in the study group produced a decrease in the circumference of the thigh and crus statistically more significant than that following lymphatic drainage. CONCLUSIONS: 1. Both standard edema-reducing treatment in the form of lymphatic massage and Kinesiology Taping significantly reduced lower limb edema in patients treated by the Ilizarov method. 2. The application of Kinesiology Taping in the study group produced a significantly faster reduction of the edema compared to standard lymphatic massage.

  • Pain perception in relation to emotional learning

    Apkarian AV. Pain perception in relation to emotional learning. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2008 Aug;18(4):464-8.

    Noninvasive brain imaging has established the participation of the cortex in pain perception and identified a long list of brain structures involved. More recent studies show the interaction between clinical chronic pain conditions and the reorganization of the brain functionally, anatomically, and chemically. Mechanisms underlying this reorganization hint to essential links between pain, especially its affective component with emotional learning and memory. This review is a discussion of the rationale and evidence for the interaction between these modalities, emphasizing underlying mechanisms.

  • Muscle pain: sensory implications and interaction with motor control

    Arendt-Nielsen L, Graven-Nielsen T. Muscle pain: sensory implications and interaction with motor control. Clin J Pain. 2008 May;24(4):291-8.

    Muscle hyperalgesia and referred pain plays an important role in chronic musculoskeletal pain. New knowledge on the involved basic mechanisms and better methods to assess muscle pain in the clinic are needed to revise and optimize the treatment regimes. Increased muscle sensitivity is manifested as (1) pain evoked by a normally non-nociceptive stimulus (allodynia), (2) increased pain intensity evoked by nociceptive stimuli (hyperalgesia), or (3) increased referred pain areas with associated somatosensory changes. Quantitative sensory testing provides the possibility to evaluate these manifestations in a standardized way in patients suffering from musculoskeletal pain or in healthy volunteers. Some manifestations of sensitisation, such as expanded referred muscle pain areas in chronic musculoskeletal pain patients, can be explained from animal experiments showing extrasegmental spread of sensitisation. An important part of the pain manifestations (eg, tenderness and referred pain) related to chronic musculoskeletal disorders may be due to peripheral and central sensitization, which play a role in the transition from acute to chronic pain. In recent years, it has become evident that muscle pain can interfere with motor control strategies and different patterns of interaction are seen during rest, static contractions, and dynamic conditions.

  • Activating muscle stem cells: therapeutic potential in muscle diseases

    Boldrin L, Morgan JE. Activating muscle stem cells: therapeutic potential in muscle diseases. Curr Opin Neurol. 2007 Oct;20(5):577-82.

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The satellite cell is the principal muscle stem cell. Recent research, however, has highlighted new stem cell sources that, once activated in the muscle tissue, can participate in muscle regeneration. This article reviews the state of research on stem cell populations that have potential for treatment of muscular dystrophies. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite recent findings about the stem cell character of satellite cells and their in-vivo myogenic potential, limitations related to muscle precursor cell transfer therapy have encouraged the investigation of stem cell sources other than satellite cells.

    Current research is focused on identifying the best stem cell in the endothelial compartment, which is able to be systemically delivered to reach all the muscles and to contribute to widespread muscle regeneration within these muscles. SUMMARY: Current results highlight many possible stem cell sources for stem cell therapy of muscle diseases, and work is ongoing to identify the most effective candidate that is able to robustly regenerate muscle tissue and to functionally repopulate the muscle stem cell compartment.

  • Imaging pain modulation in health and disease

    Bingel U, Schoell E, Büchel C. Imaging pain modulation in health and disease. Curr Opin Neurol. 2007 Aug;20(4):424-31.

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we discuss recent advances in pain imaging research. We focus on the involvement of endogenous pain control mechanisms in the healthy central nervous system and the potential contribution of failure within this system for chronic pain states. RECENT FINDINGS: Nociceptive information processing and related pain perception is subject to substantial pro and antinociceptive modulation. Recent studies demonstrate that this modulation can take place at any stage of ascending information processing. A network of cortical, predominantly mesial and frontal areas, in combination with specific brainstem nuclei, appear to be the key players in the context of endogenous pain modulation. Recent findings from functional and anatomical neuroimaging support the notion that an altered interaction of pro and antinociceptive mechanisms may contribute to the development or maintenance of chronic pain states. The additional use of pharmacological intervention in pain imaging research provides an alternative tool for investigating mechanisms of pain modulation. SUMMARY: Top-down pain modulation relies on both cortical and subcortical structures. Research on the involved circuitry, including the implemented mechanisms, is a major focus of contemporary neuroscientific research in the field of pain and will provide new insights into the prevention and treatment of chronic pain states.

  • Central sensitization in fibromyalgia and other musculoskeletal disorders

    Arendt-Nielsen L, Graven-Nielsen T. Central sensitization in fibromyalgia and other musculoskeletal disorders. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2003 Oct;7(5):355-61.

    Muscle hyperalgesia and referred pain play an important role in chronic musculoskeletal pain. New knowledge on the involved basic mechanisms and better methods to assess muscle pain in the clinic are needed to revise and optimize treatment regimens. Increased muscle sensitivity is manifested as pain evoked by a normally non-nociceptive stimulus (allodynia), increased pain intensity evoked by nociceptive stimuli (hyperalgesia), or increased referred pain areas with associated somatosensory changes. Some manifestations of sensitization, such as expanded referred muscle pain areas in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, can be explained from animal experiments showing extrasegmental spread of sensitization. An important part of the pain manifestations (eg, tenderness and referred pain) related to chronic musculoskeletal disorders may result from peripheral and central sensitization, which may play a role in the transition from acute to chronic pain.

  • Mechanisms of pain modulation in chronic syndromes

    Bolay H, Moskowitz MA. Mechanisms of pain modulation in chronic syndromes. Neurology. 2002 Sep 10;59(5 Suppl 2):S2-7.

    Transmission of pain from the periphery to the cortex depends on integration and signal processing within the spinal cord, brainstem, and forebrain. Sensitization, a component of persistent or chronic pain, may develop either through peripheral mechanisms or as a consequence of altered physiology in the spinal cord or forebrain. Several molecular and biophysical mechanisms contribute to the phenomenon of sensitization and persistent pain, including upregulation of sensory neuron- specific sodium channels and vanilloid receptors, phenotypic switching of large myelinated axons, sprouting within the dorsal horn, and loss of inhibitory neurons due to apoptotic cell death. Recently, forebrain structures have been implicated in the pathophysiology of persistent pain. Although a number of treatment options are used, unfortunately pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain is often ineffective. Unraveling the mysteries of chronic pain may lead to better treatment options, such as drugs that act specifically on sensory neuron-specific sodium channels or as NR2B-subunit-selective N-methyl-D- aspartate receptor antagonists.